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    健全评级机构市场化约束机制

    来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年12月06日 05:59:03
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    (  双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(是)(指)(在)(债)(券)(发)(行)(过)(程)(中)(,同)(一)(债)(券)(发)(行)(主)(体)(或)(者)(同)(一)(债)(项)(由)(两)(家)(评)(级)(机)(构)(同)(时)(进)(行)(信)(用)(评)(级)(并)(独)(立)(出)(具)(评)(级)(报)(告)(的)(一)(项)(制)(度)(安)(排)(。从)(国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(来)(看)(,双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(对)(于)(抑)(制)(债)(券)(市)(场)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(、提)(升)(信)(用)(评)(级)(的)(风)(险)(揭)(示)(功)(能)(、转)(变)(评)(级)(行)(业)(监)(管)(方)(式)(和)(提)(高)(本)(土)(评)(级)(机)(构)(在)(国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(的)(话)(语)(权)(,促)(进)(评)(级)(行)(业)(和)(债)(券)(市)(场)(健)(康)(发)(展)(,具)(有)(重)(要)(意)(义)(。本)(文)(在)(总)(结)(国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(双)(评)(级)(经)(验)(的)(基)(础)(上)(,对)(我)(国)(引)(入)(双)(评)(级)(机)(制)(的)(必)(要)(性)(进)(行)(了)(探)(讨)(,并)(提)(出)(了)(在)(我)(国)(实)(施)(双)(评)(级)(的)(若)(干)(建)(议)(?! ∫?(、国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(实)(施)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(的)(相)(关)(经)(验)(  从)(国)(际)(经)(验)(来)(看)(,许)(多)(国)(家)(和)(地)(区)(都)(在)(一)(定)(范)(围)(内)(实)(施)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(,对)(促)(进)(国)(内)(评)(级)(行)(业)(有)(序)(竞)(争)(,推)(动)(债)(券)(市)(场)(健)(康)(发)(展)(起)(到)(了)(重)(要)(作)(用)(?! ?、美)(国)(  美)(国)(的)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(是)(在)(市)(场)(自)(发)(的)(基)(础)(上)(形)(成)(的)(。作)(为)(一)(种)(市)(场)(惯)(例)(,发)(行)(人)(在)(发)(债)(时)(通)(常)(都)(会)(委)(托)(两)(家)(评)(级)(公)(司)(同)(时)(评)(级)(。而)(美)(国)(监)(管)(部)(门)(从)(债)(券)(投)(资)(者)(使)(用)(的)(角)(度)(将)(双)(评)(级)(结)(果)(纳)(入)(其)(监)(管)(规)(则)(中)(,进)(一)(步)(推)(动)(了)(双)(评)(级)(的)(广)(泛)(采)(用)(。2008年)(金)(融)(危)(机)(后)(,美)(国)(监)(管)(部)(门)(逐)(步)(取)(消)(了)(相)(关)(监)(管)(政)(策)(中)(对)(评)(级)(结)(果)(直)(接)(使)(用)(的)(条)(款)(,但)(在)(某)(些)(领)(域)(仍)(然)(鼓)(励)(实)(行)(双)(评)(级)(?! ?010年)(7月)(,美)(国)(《多)(德)(-弗)(兰)(克)(法)(案)(》规)(定)(,结)(构)(化)(金)(融)(产)(品)(评)(级)(必)(须)(在)(NRSRO评)(级)(机)(构)(之)(间)(实)(现)(信)(息)(公)(开)(共)(享)(。这)(一)(规)(定)(有)(利)(于)(促)(进)(双)(评)(级)(在)(结)(构)(化)(金)(融)(产)(品)(领)(域)(的)(发)(展)(?! ?、欧)(盟)(国)(家)(  欧)(盟)(国)(家)(的)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(也)(是)(在)(市)(场)(自)(发)(的)(基)(础)(上)(形)(成)(的)(。2008年)(金)(融)(危)(机)(后)(,欧)(盟)(出)(台)(了)(针)(对)(信)(用)(评)(级)(行)(业)(的)(相)(关)(监)(管)(法)(规)(,旨)(在)(减)(少)(评)(级)(依)(赖)(,确)(保)(主)(权)(评)(级)(更)(加)(稳)(定)(,提)(高)(结)(构)(性)(产)(品)(评)(级)(的)(质)(量)(,并)(增)(强)(评)(级)(的)(透)(明)(度)(?! ?013年)(5月)(,欧)(盟)(理)(事)(会)(通)(过)(了)(《欧)(盟)(评)(级)(机)(构)(监)(管)(法)(规)(》第)(二)(次)(修)(正)(案)((CRAⅢ),当)(发)(行)(人)(要)(聘)(请)(2家)(及)(以)(上)(评)(级)(机)(构)(时)(应)(考)(虑)(聘)(请)(至)(少)(一)(家)(市)(场)(份)(额)(不)(超)(过)(10%的)(小)(型)(评)(级)(机)(构)(进)(行)(评)(级)(;结)(构)(化)(金)(融)(产)(品)(须)(由)(至)(少)(两)(家)(评)(级)(机)(构)(评)(级)(?! ?、日)(本)(  根)(据)(近)(期)(对)(日)(本)(监)(管)(部)(门)(和)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(实)(地)(考)(察)(,日)(本)(目)(前)(虽)(不)(存)(在)(双)(评)(级)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(,但)(在)(债)(券)(发)(行)(过)(程)(中)(,也)(普)(遍)(存)(在)(债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(自)(愿)(聘)(请)(评)(级)(机)(构)(同)(时)(评)(级)(的)(情)(况)(?! ?、韩)(国)(  韩)(国)(的)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(是)(由)(政)(府)(直)(接)(推)(动)(的)(。韩)(国)(监)(管)(部)(门)(一)(直)(不)(允)(许)(外)(国)(评)(级)(机)(构)(在)(韩)(国)(独)(立)(开)(展)(业)(务)(,并)(明)(确)(规)(定)(所)(有)(公)(开)(发)(行)(的)(无)(担)(保)(债)(券)(需)(要)(经)(过)(至)(少)(两)(家)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(评)(级)(,并)(且)(信)(用)(级)(别)(需)(在)(A级)((含)(A级)()以)(上)(。2008年)(金)(融)(危)(机)(后)(,韩)(国)(仍)(然)(执)(行)(双)(评)(级)(政)(策)(,韩)(国)(金)(融)(监)(管)(委)(员)(会)(规)(定)(,所)(有)(无)(担)(保)(债)(券)(的)(发)(行)(必)(须)(采)(用)(双)(评)(级)(?! 《?(、我)(国)(债)(券)(市)(场)(引)(入)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(的)(必)(要)(性)(  1、双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(是)(抑)(制)(债)(券)(市)(场)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(有)(效)(市)(场)(化)(手)(段)(  伴)(随)(着)(企)(业)(债)(券)(市)(场)(的)(发)(展)(尤)(其)(是)(信)(用)(类)(债)(券)(的)(蓬)(勃)(发)(展)(,我)(国)(评)(级)(行)(业)(取)(得)(了)(长)(足)(的)(进)(步)(,评)(级)(市)(场)(规)(模)(不)(断)(扩)(大)(、信)(用)(评)(级)(产)(品)(种)(类)(不)(断)(丰)(富)(,评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(市)(场)(影)(响)(力)(也)(逐)(步)(提)(升)(,但)(一)(直)(以)(来)(评)(级)(采)(购)(或)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(问)(题)(饱)(受)(市)(场)(诟)(病)(。但)(在)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(框)(架)(下)(,两)(家)(或)(以)(上)(的)(不)(同)(评)(级)(机)(构)(可)(在)(同)(一)(时)(间)(,对)(同)(一)(发)(行)(人)(进)(行)(评)(级)(并)(对)(外)(披)(露)(,其)(评)(级)(行)(为)(、分)(析)(能)(力)(和)(评)(级)(结)(果)(均)(会)(受)(到)(市)(场)(的)(监)(督)(,使)(那)(些)(为)(获)(得)(短)(期)(利)(益)(而)(降)(低)(评)(级)(标)(准)(的)(评)(级)(机)(构)(面)(临)(更)(大)(的)(声)(誉)(损)(失)(,从)(而)(对)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(形)(成)(有)(效)(约)(束)(?! ?、双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(可)(以)(显)(著)(提)(升)(信)(用)(评)(级)(的)(风)(险)(揭)(示)(功)(能)(,为)(投)(资)(者)(提)(供)(更)(有)(价)(值)(的)(服)(务)(  近)(年)(来)(,我)(国)(债)(券)(市)(场)(违)(约)(事)(件)(和)(信)(用)(事)(件)(逐)(步)(增)(加)(,信)(用)(风)(险)(显)(著)(上)(升)(。债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(和)(投)(资)(者)(之)(间)(的)(信)(息)(不)(对)(称)(是)(影)(响)(投)(资)(者)(判)(断)(其)(拟)(投)(资)(债)(券)(信)(用)(风)(险)(的)(关)(键)(因)(素)(,信)(用)(评)(级)(的)(作)(用)(就)(在)(于)(及)(时)(、客)(观)(地)(为)(债)(券)(投)(资)(人)(提)(供)(信)(用)(风)(险)(信)(息)(和)(高)(质)(量)(的)(评)(级)(结)(果)(。通)(过)(双)(评)(级)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(,投)(资)(者)(可)(以)(获)(得)(更)(为)(充)(分)(的)(信)(用)(风)(险)(信)(息)(,并)(能)(够)(对)(不)(同)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(评)(级)(结)(果)(和)(评)(级)(依)(据)(进)(行)(比)(较)(,对)(债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(的)(优)(势)(和)(风)(险)(有)(更)(客)(观)(和)(全)(面)(的)(认)(识)(,从)(而)(提)(高)(投)(资)(风)(险)(的)(可)(控)(程)(度)(?! ?、双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(有)(助)(于)(转)(变)(评)(级)(行)(业)(监)(管)(方)(式)(,提)(高)(评)(级)(结)(果)(的)(公)(信)(力)(  我)(国)(债)(券)(市)(场)(评)(级)(级)(别)(中)(枢)(偏)(高)(,债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(主)(体)(和)(债)(项)(级)(别)(显)(现)(明)(显)(的)(高)(等)(级)(集)(中)(分)(布)(。造)(成)(这)(一)(现)(象)(的)(原)(因)(除)(了)(评)(级)(行)(业)(存)(在)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(之)(外)(,监)(管)(政)(策)(对)(发)(债)(企)(业)(主)(体)(级)(别)(的)(过)(度)(使)(用)(也)(是)(重)(要)(的)(影)(响)(因)(素)(,包)(括)(公)(开)(发)(行)(的)(公)(司)(债)(券)(主)(体)(级)(别)(须)(在)(AA以)(上)(,作)(为)(交)(易)(所)(回)(购)(质)(押)(券)(的)(主)(体)(信)(用)(等)(级)(须)(在)(AA以)(上)(等)(等)(。监)(管)(政)(策)(对)(发)(债)(企)(业)(主)(体)(级)(别)(的)(过)(度)(使)(用)(不)(仅)(削)(弱)(了)(投)(资)(者)(自)(行)(判)(断)(风)(险)(的)(动)(力)(,而)(且)(还)(会)(引)(发)(债)(券)(市)(场)(的)(逆)(向)(选)(择)(,造)(成)(评)(级)(级)(别)(中)(枢)(上)(移)(和)(信)(用)(等)(级)(分)(布)(不)(合)(理)(,背)(离)(了)(防)(范)(和)(控)(制)(发)(行)(人)(信)(用)(风)(险)(的)(政)(策)(初)(衷)(?! ∪?(前)(所)(述)(,双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(有)(助)(于)(提)(高)(信)(用)(评)(级)(对)(债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(的)(风)(险)(揭)(示)(能)(力)(,更)(多)(地)(运)(用)(市)(场)(化)(约)(束)(手)(段)(来)(防)(范)(和)(控)(制)(债)(券)(市)(场)(信)(用)(风)(险)(。在)(放)(松)(甚)(至)(取)(消)(发)(债)(企)(业)(主)(体)(级)(别)(限)(制)(的)(情)(况)(下)(,不)(同)(信)(用)(等)(级)(的)(企)(业)(均)(能)(在)(债)(券)(市)(场)(融)(资)(,双)(评)(级)(这)(一)(市)(场)(化)(手)(段)(在)(信)(用)(风)(险)(揭)(示)(和)(防)(范)(的)(作)(用)(会)(更)(加)(突)(出)(,从)(而)(推)(动)(我)(国)(评)(级)(行)(业)(监)(管)(方)(式)(的)(转)(变)(,提)(高)(评)(级)(结)(果)(的)(公)(信)(力)(?! ?、双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(有)(助)(于)(培)(养)(本)(土)(评)(级)(机)(构)(,提)(高)(本)(土)(评)(级)(机)(构)(在)(国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(的)(话)(语)(权)(  尽)(管)(我)(国)(评)(级)(行)(业)(近)(年)(来)(发)(展)(较)(快)(,但)(总)(体)(上)(仍)(处)(于)(初)(步)(发)(展)(阶)(段)(,评)(级)(机)(构)(综)(合)(实)(力)(还)(不)(强)(,在)(债)(券)(市)(场)(处)(于)(弱)(势)(地)(位)(,特)(别)(是)(人)(员)(流)(动)(性)(较)(大)(成)(为)(评)(级)(机)(构)(业)(务)(开)(展)(和)(评)(级)(质)(量)(提)(升)(的)(重)(要)(制)(约)(因)(素)(。双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(的)(实)(施)(有)(助)(于)(增)(加)(评)(级)(业)(务)(规)(模)(,评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(业)(务)(收)(入)(将)(相)(应)(提)(高)(,从)(而)(使)(评)(级)(机)(构)(可)(以)(在)(评)(级)(技)(术)(以)(及)(人)(才)(培)(养)(方)(面)(投)(入)(更)(多)(资)(源)(,有)(助)(于)(评)(级)(人)(员)(稳)(定)(性)(和)(评)(级)(质)(量)(的)(提)(高)(?! ×?(一)(方)(面)(,信)(用)(评)(级)(在)(维)(护)(国)(家)(金)(融)(安)(全)(、争)(取)(国)(际)(金)(融)(话)(语)(权)(方)(面)(具)(有)(重)(要)(意)(义)(。双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(的)(实)(施)(,特)(别)(是)(在)(主)(权)(评)(级)(、境)(外)(发)(行)(的)(人)(民)(币)(债)(券)(评)(级)(领)(域)(推)(动)(至)(少)(由)(一)(家)(本)(土)(评)(级)(机)(构)(进)(行)(评)(级)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(,有)(助)(于)(加)(强)(对)(本)(土)(信)(用)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(扶)(持)(力)(度)(,推)(动)(本)(土)(评)(级)(机)(构)(走)(出)(去)(,提)(高)(在)(国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(的)(影)(响)(力)(和)(话)(语)(权)(?! ∪?(、引)(入)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(,健)(全)(评)(级)(机)(构)(市)(场)(化)(约)(束)(机)(制)(的)(若)(干)(建)(议)(  针)(对)(我)(国)(评)(级)(行)(业)(发)(展)(的)(现)(状)(和)(存)(在)(的)(问)(题)(,借)(鉴)(国)(际)(债)(券)(市)(场)(双)(评)(级)(的)(相)(关)(经)(验)(,在)(我)(国)(债)(券)(市)(场)(引)(入)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(已)(经)(成)(为)(抑)(制)(债)(券)(市)(场)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(,健)(全)(评)(级)(机)(构)(市)(场)(化)(约)(束)(机)(制)(的)(重)(要)(方)(法)(和)(手)(段)(?! ?、以)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(推)(动)(评)(级)(行)(业)(监)(管)(方)(式)(的)(转)(变)(,逐)(步)(放)(开)(对)(债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(主)(体)(级)(别)(的)(限)(制)(  2008年)(金)(融)(危)(机)(后)(,加)(强)(对)(评)(级)(行)(业)(监)(管)(,降)(低)(对)(外)(部)(评)(级)(依)(赖)(成)(为)(国)(际)(监)(管)(趋)(势)(。我)(国)(在)(明)(确)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(法)(律)(责)(任)(,加)(强)(评)(级)(行)(业)(监)(管)(方)(面)(走)(在)(国)(际)(监)(管)(的)(前)(列)(,但)(在)(降)(低)(对)(外)(部)(评)(级)(依)(赖)(的)(相)(关)(监)(管)(改)(革)(方)(面)(有)(所)(滞)(后)(。建)(议)(以)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(的)(实)(施)(为)(契)(机)(,逐)(步)(放)(开)(对)(债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(主)(体)(级)(别)(的)(限)(制)(,一)(方)(面)(放)(宽)(债)(券)(发)(行)(条)(件)(,发)(展)(中)(国)(的)(高)(收)(益)(债)(券)(市)(场)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(,更)(多)(依)(靠)(双)(评)(级)(这)(一)(市)(场)(约)(束)(机)(制)(来)(防)(范)(和)(控)(制)(债)(券)(市)(场)(信)(用)(风)(险)(,充)(分)(发)(挥)(信)(用)(评)(级)(在)(信)(用)(风)(险)(揭)(示)(方)(面)(的)(作)(用)(?! ?.循)(序)(渐)(进)(、稳)(步)(推)(进)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(  鉴)(于)(双)(评)(级)(在)(一)(定)(程)(度)(上)(会)(增)(加)(债)(券)(发)(行)(人)(的)(发)(行)(成)(本)(,且)(市)(场)(认)(可)(度)(有)(一)(个)(逐)(步)(提)(升)(的)(过)(程)(,建)(议)(双)(评)(级)(制)(度)(从)(结)(构)(融)(资)(、创)(新)(性)(金)(融)(产)(品)(、境)(外)(机)(构)(境)(内)(发)(行)(人)(民)(币)(债)(券)((熊)(猫)(债)()和)(国)(际)(市)(场)(发)(行)(的)(人)(民)(币)(债)(券)(等)(领)(域)(先)(行)(开)(展)(。对)(于)(国)(内)(发)(行)(的)(结)(构)(融)(资)(、创)(新)(性)(金)(融)(产)(品)(,相)(关)(政)(策)(可)(明)(确)(规)(定)(必)(须)(经)(过)(两)(家)(以)(上)(具)(有)(评)(级)(资)(格)(的)(评)(级)(机)(构)(进)(行)(评)(级)(;对)(于)(熊)(猫)(债)(及)(境)(外)(人)(民)(币)(债)(券)(评)(级)(,相)(关)(政)(策)(可)(明)(确)(规)(定)(必)(须)(经)(过)(至)(少)(一)(家)(具)(有)(国)(内)(评)(级)(资)(格)(的)(本)(土)(评)(级)(机)(构)(进)(行)(评)(级)(,同)(时)(如)(境)(外)(评)(级)(机)(构)(要)(开)(展)(境)(内)(评)(级)(业)(务)(的)(也)(必)(须)(取)(得)(国)(内)(评)(级)(业)(务)(资)(质)(。在)(此)(基)(础)(上)(,根)(据)(双)(评)(级)(的)(实)(施)(效)(果)(和)(政)(策)(安)(排)(进)(度)(逐)(步)(推)(广)(双)(评)(级)(的)(应)(用)(范)(围)(,包)(括)(公)(开)(和)(非)(公)(开)(发)(行)(的)(债)(券)(?! ⊥?(时)(,建)(立)(和)(健)(全)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(进)(入)(和)(退)(出)(机)(制)(,加)(大)(对)(存)(在)(级)(别)(采)(购)(和)(评)(级)(质)(量)(问)(题)(的)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(处)(罚)(力)(度)(,以)(促)(进)(评)(级)(行)(业)(的)(公)(平)(竞)(争)(和)(评)(级)(质)(量)(的)(提)(高)(?! ?、以)(孰)(低)(原)(则)(推)(动)(双)(评)(级)(结)(果)(的)(使)(用)(  在)(双)(评)(级)(结)(果)(的)(法)(定)(使)(用)(方)(面)(,对)(国)(内)(评)(级)(机)(构)(实)(施)(的)(双)(评)(级)(建)(议)(采)(用)(孰)(低)(原)(则)(,即)(相)(关)(政)(策)(明)(确)(规)(定)(选)(择)(评)(级)(级)(别)(较)(低)(的)(外)(部)(评)(级)(结)(果)(作)(为)(债)(券)(定)(价)(和)(风)(险)(资)(本)(计)(量)(等)(的)(依)(据)(???(虑)(到)(境)(外)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(评)(级)(标)(准)(与)(国)(内)(评)(级)(机)(构)(存)(在)(较)(大)(的)(差)(异)(,建)(议)(境)(外)(评)(级)(机)(构)(的)(评)(级)(结)(果)(仅)(作)(为)(境)(内)(债)(券)(发)(行)(的)(评)(级)(参)(考)(。孰)(低)(原)(则)(较)(为)(谨)(慎)(合)(理)(,且)(目)(前)(国)(内)(外)(监)(管)(部)(门)(均)(有)(采)(用)(,有)(助)(于)(抑)(制)(债)(券)(市)(场)(的)(级)(别)(竞)(争)(,促)(进)(评)(级)(行)(业)(和)(债)(券)(市)(场)(健)(康)(发)(展)(。(作)(者)(系)(东)(方)(金)(诚)(国)(际)(信)(用)(评)(估)(有)(限)(公)(司)(首)(席)(评)(级)(总)(监)()  作)(者)(:裴)(永)(刚)(来)(源)(一)(财)(网)()
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